IBL International offers a highly sensitive and specific ELISA test intended for the diagnostic work-up of chikungunya fever, an infectious disease whose incidence has been increasing steadily in recent years. Its characteristics are:
- µ-capture technology
- Diagnostic sensitivity of >98% and diagnostic specificity of 100%
- Indicated for the differential diagnosis of chikungunya fever and dengue fever
- Qualitative results (positive, negative, cut-off control)
- Adaptable to open-system ELISA analyzers
Chikungunya fever is a viral febrile illness transmitted by several mosquito species. It may lead to severe arthralgia that may persist for weeks to months. Nevertheless, chikungunya fever is essentially self-limiting and non-fatal. Chikungunya has historically been limited to countries in Africa, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. However, many tourist areas are now also affected by extensive outbreaks and increasing incidence, which is how the virus made its way to the Western Hemisphere, resulting in imported cases in a number of European countries. In 2006, several imported chikungunya cases were diagnosed in Northern Italy due to the presence of competent mosquito vectors for the chikungunya virus.
Laboratory diagnosis is generally accomplished by testing seraum or plasma to detect virus-specific immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG) by means of an immunoassay. Since the symptoms and geographic spread of chikungunya and dengue fever overlap, a differential diagnostic work-up is of utmost importance, putting special performance demands upon diagnostic tests. Moreover, due to the absence of widespread seropositivity in the European population, any positive antibody test is suspicious for infection. In addition to the Chikungunya IgM µ-capture ELISA, IBL International offers an IgG capture ELISA. Both assays boast outstanding performance data.
Evaluation of diagnostic performance of the Chikungunya IgM µ-capture ELISA
1. External method comparison of the Chikungunya IgM µ-capture ELISA offered by IBL International with an in-house immunofluorescence test (The Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg)
The comparison of 31 positive and negative sera revealed a concordance of 96.8%.
2. Analysis of selected positive and negative sera (DGHS, New Delhi) using the IBL International Chikungunya IgM µ-capture ELISA assay
The analysis of 88 sera revealed an agreement of 100%.
Excerpt from the Instructions for Use
Chikungunya virus is an arthropod borne virus of the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae). The Alphavirus genus contains at least 24 distinct species. These are lipid-enveloped virions with a diameter of 50 to 60 nm. Alphavirus infections are initiated by the bite of an infected mosquito, which results in the deposition of virus in subcutaneous and possibly cutaneous tissues. After an incubation period of 1 to 12 days the Chikungunya fever develops. Chikungunya fever (Chikungunya means “that which bends up”, in reference to the crippling manifestations of the disease) is an acute viral infection characterized by a rapid transition from a state of good health to illness that includes severe arthralgia and fever. Temperature rises abruptly to as high as 40 °C and is often accompanied by shaking chills. After a few days, fever may abate and recrudesce, giving rise to a “saddleback” fever curve. Arthralgia is polyarticular, favoring the small joints and sites of previous injuries, and is most intense on arising. Patients typically avoid movement as much as possible. Joints may swell without significant fluid accumulations. These symptoms may last from 1 week to several months and are accompanied by myalgia. The rash characteristically appears on the first day of illness, but onset may be delayed. It usually arises as a flush over the face and neck, which evolves to a maculopapular or macular form that may be pruritic. The latter lesions appear on the trunk, limbs, face, plams and soles, in that order of frequency. Petechial skin lesions have also been noted. Headache, photophobia, retro-orbitral pain, sore throat with objective signs of pharyngitis, nausea and vomiting also occur in this setting. Occasionally, however persistent arthralgia and polyarthritis (lasting months or even years) do occur, sometimes involving joint destruction. Even rarer, sequelae include encephalitis and meningoencephalitis with high lethality rates. The virus has major importance in Africa and Asia. From 20 % to more than 90 % of the population of tropical and subtropical show serologic evidence of infection. Because Aedes mosquitoes are increasingly prevalent in North Africa and South America, where the population would be uniformly susceptible to infection, the possibility for epidemics is evident. Chikungunya virus infections are imported to central Europe mainly by travellers to tropical and subtropical countries.The presence of virus resp. infection may be identified by Serology: Detection of antibodies by IF, ELISA
For concrete data please consult the Instruction for Use in the download box on the right side.